Oral Cancer – Treatment and Surgery from Best Cancer Hospitals in India
Diagnosis of Oral Cancer
Mouth cancer has the same meaning as oral cancer – This cancer can occur in any part of mouth such as; at the surface of the tongue, lips, cheeks and gums, tonsils, inside the mouth cavity and also in salivary glands. Mouth cancer is a type of head and neck cancer and it is often treated in the same way. Anyone can suffer from oral cancer but the risk is high, if you are a male, over the age of 40, chews tobacco frequently or drinks alcohol or has a history of head or neck cancer. Frequent sun exposure is also one of the risk factor for lip cancer. Symptoms of oral cancer include:
- White or red patches inside your mouth.
- Mouth sore that don’t heal.
- Bleeding in your mouth.
- Loose Teeth.
- Problems or pain while swallowing.
- A Lump in your neck.
- An Earache.
Diagnosis of Oral Cancer
Biopsy : The Doctor may take a small sample of tissue to see if there are cancerous cells. In most cases the patient will be under general anesthesia but in some cases, just a local anesthetic is used and especially if the biopsy involves taking a sample from the surface of the tissue (fine needle aspiration biopsy).
Endoscopy : The Doctor passes a lighted scope down the patient’s throat to see whether the cancer has spread beyond the mouth.
Ultrasonography : Ultrasound imaging is a medical technique that uses high-frequency sound waves to create an interior image of the body on a special computer screen. This image is formed from the echoes of the sound waves on the surface of the organs. Abnormal tissue masses and organs reflect sound waves differently.
Imaging Tests : The Following tests may help the doctor determine whether the cancer has spread:
X-Rays – It shows the location, size, and shape of a oral tumor. If x-rays suggest that an abnormal area may be cancerous, the doctor is likely to recommend special imaging tests.
Computerized Tomography (CT) Scans – A CT scan takes a series of x-rays, which build up a three-dimensional picture of the inside of the body. The scan takes 10-30 minutes and is painless. It uses a small amount of radiation, which is very unlikely to harm you and will not harm anyone come into contact with.
Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) Scans – An MRI scan is used to assess the extent of the primary tumor so that the doctors can plan the best treatment. They also help to detect whether the tumor has progressed.
PET (Positron Emission Tomography) Scans – PET scans use glucose (a form of sugar) that contains a radioactive atom. A special camera can detect the radioactivity. Cancer cells absorb a lot of the radioactive sugar because of their high rate of metabolism. PET is useful to look for cancer throughout your body. PET scans can be more helpful than several different x-rays because it scans the whole body. It can sometimes help tell if a tumor is cancerous or benign. It is being combined with CT scans to better pinpoint some kinds of cancer.
Panorex – This is a rotating x ray of upper and lower jawbones that determines changes that occur due to cancers in the oral cavity. Chest X-rays help in checking for lung cancers in oral cancer patients with smoking habits. Barium swallow is a commonly performed series of x rays to assess the cancers of the digestive tract in patients with oral cancer. A radionulide bone scan may be suggested if there is concern that the cancer may have spread to the bones.Post a Query
Treatment of Oral Cancer at World Class Hospitals in India
Surgery to Remove the Tumor : Your surgeon may cut away the tumor and a margin of healthy tissue that surrounds it. Smaller cancers may be removed through minor surgery. Larger tumors may require more-extensive procedures.
Surgery to Remove Cancer that has Spread to the Neck : If cancer cells have spread to the lymph nodes in your neck, your surgeon may recommend a procedure to remove cancerous lymph nodes and related tissue in the neck (neck dissection).
Surgery to Reconstruct the Mouth : After an operation to remove your cancer, your surgeon may recommend reconstructive surgery to restore the appearance of your face or to help you regain the ability to talk and eat.
Maxillectomy : Maxillectomy is the removal of the hard palate if that is affected. A special denture called prosthesis can alter the defect caused in the hard palate resulting from the surgery. Mouth’s surgery involves removal of thin sections of lip tumors. Immediate examination of the sections for potential cancer cells allows the surgeons to decide whether or not the cancer is completely removed.
Laryngectomy : Laryngectomy is the surgical removal of larynx (voice box). This is done when there is risk of food entering the trachea and infecting the lungs, as a result of removal of tumors of tongue or oropharynx. By removing the larynx, the trachea is attached to the skin of the neck thus eliminating the risk of infecting the lung and potential pneumonia.
Neck Dissection : Neck dissection is a surgical procedure involving removal of lymph nodes in the neck that are known to contain cancer cells. The side effects of this surgery include numbness of the ear, difficulty in raising the arm above the head, discomfort to the lower lip—all of which are caused by different nerves involved in the surgery.
Tracheostomy : Tracheostomy is an incision made in the trachea to facilitate breathing for oral cancer patients who may develop considerable swelling following surgical removal of the tumor in oral cavity. This prevents any obstruction in the throat and allows easy breathing.
Radiotherapy : Radiotherapy uses doses of radiation to kill cancerous cells. It may be possible to remove the cancer using radiotherapy alone, but it is usually used after surgery to prevent the cancer from re-occurring.
Internal Radiotherapy : Internal radiotherapy is a type of radiotherapy often used to treat cancers of the tongue that are in their early stages. It involves sticking radioactive wires or needles directly into the tumour while you are under a general anaesthetic (put to sleep). The wires or needles then release a dose of radiation into the tumour.
Chemotherapy : Chemotherapy is often used in combination with radiotherapy when the cancer is widespread, or if it is thought there is a significant risk of the cancer returning.Chemotherapy involves the use of powerful cancer-killing medicines.
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