Major Types of Cardiac Defects in Children
A successful cardiac surgery in children requires an expert medical team – doctors, nurses, and other support staff – who are experienced in such surgeries, can promptly recognize problems and emerging side effects, and know how to react swiftly and properly if problems do arise. A cardiac surgery program will also recognize the importance of providing patients and their families with emotional and psychological support before, during and after the surgery, and will make personal and other support systems readily available to families for this purpose. We make this difficult journey easy for the patient and his relatives.
Paediatric surgeries deal with the correction of abnormalities present in the heart of new-borns, infants or children. Most of the defects are present since birth (congenital). They all come under the category of congenital heart defects. Some are present since birth but cause symptoms after a few years and some cause symptoms immediately after birth.
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Mary Chinye from Nigeria shares her experience about her One year Old daughter’s miraculous recovery from complex valve defect
It was a matter of life for my young daughter who was diagnosed with Valve defect at just One year age. Finding safemedtrip.com has been a blessing for us. Every member of staff works as a dedicated member of a team to assist recovery.
We were somewhat nervous about coming to India as we have never visited before, but we were never left unsure or uncomfortable about anything from the time we were picked up at the airport. The hospital in India is overall the very best we have experienced. The level of care is exceptional. The doctors, nurses and medical facilities and the room facilities were equally excellent. Thanks you all and God bless you !Request a Call Back
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Any defect in the septum or valves or position of arteries causes mixing of pure and impure blood or reduced blood supply to the body. If the defect is severe it is incompatible with life and requires immediate surgical intervention. Circulation of impure blood in the body results in bluish discoloration of the body called cyanosis. The tissues do not receive adequate amount of oxygen and hence cannot function.
The major cardiac defects include:
- Atrial Septal Defect
- Ventricular Septal Defect,
- Fallot’s Tetralogy
- Valvular defects
Approximately 25000-30000 children per year are affected by these defects. The paediatric surgeries deal with correction of these malformations.Get Estimate
ASD- Atrial Septal Defect refers to a hole in the septum that separates the right and left atrium. This results in mixing of pure and impure blood. Depending on the size of the defect, the symptoms may range from no symptoms to bluish discoloration of the body, increase pulmonary blood pressure and irregular cardiac contractions (arrhythmias). It is corrected by open heart surgery. The sternum is split in the midline. Arterial and double venous (superior vena cava and inferior vena cava) vessels are clamped. By applying cardiopulmonary bypass (heart lung machine), the aorta is clamped, and the heart is temporarily paralyzed by a solution. The right atrium is opened and the defect is sutured.
At our world class hospitals in India, minimally invasive approaches to the repair of ASD have now been developed. In most cases, the size of the incision is simply decreased with different approaches to cardiopulmonary bypass. Examples include partial or full submammary skin incision, hemisternotomy, and limited thoracotomy. The goal is to improve cosmetic results because these approaches are not associated with decreased morbidity or mortality. In recent times, ASD have been closed by using a variety of catheter-implanted occlusion devices rather than by direct surgical closure with cardiopulmonary bypass.
These devices are placed through a femoral venous approach and are deployed like an umbrella to seal the septal defect. These devices work best for centrally located secundum defects. Our cardiologist with congenital experience will continue patient care to monitor for recurrence of the shunt and to ensure that the patient has returned to normal activities and cardiac function. Get Estimate
Ventricular Septal Defect (VSD)
Ventricular Septal Defect – is a hole in the wall between the right and left ventricles of the heart. This abnormality usually develops before birth and is found most often in infants. A ventricular septal defect can allow newly oxygenated blood to flow from the left ventricle, where the pressures are higher, to the right ventricle, where the pressures are lower, and mix with un-oxygenated blood. The mixed blood in the right ventricle flows back or recirculates into the lungs. This means that the right and left ventricles are working harder, pumping a greater volume of blood than they normally would. Eventually, the left ventricle can work so hard that it starts to fail. It can no longer pump blood as well as it did.
Blood returning to the heart from the blood vessels backs up into the lungs, causing pulmonary congestion, and further backup into the body, causing weight gain and fluid retention. If the VSD is large and surgically uncorrected, pressure can build excessively in the lungs, resulting in pulmonary hypertension. The higher the pulmonary pressure, greater the chances of blood flowing from the right ventricle to the left ventricle, backwards, causing un-oxygenated blood to be pumped to the body resulting in cyanosis (blue skin). The risk for these problems depends on the size of the hole in the septum and how well the infant’s lungs function.
Small VSDs’ are symptomless and closed spontaneously as the child grows. The large VSDs’ cause symptoms like difficulty in breathing and feeding, poor growth and pallor. The symptoms occur due to the increase in size of the right ventricle (right ventricular hypertrophy) and increase in pressure inside the lungs (pulmonary hypertension).
Two Types of Surgeries are Available –
- Intra-Cardiac Technique – the patient is attached to an external heart-lung machine (which performs circulatory and respiratory function during surgery). It is an open heart surgery in which the patient is placed under general anaesthesia. The rib cage is cut open in the midline. The heart is directly accessed and the defect is sutured.
- Trans- Catheter Technique – Surgical instruments are passed through the catheter which is inserted in the femoral artery at the groin. The catheter is slowly guided up towards the point of defect to close it. It is a successful surgery. With the separation of ventricles normal circulation resumes. The enlarged heart comes back to normal size. Pulmonary artery pressure reduces. The child’s growth fastens. The prognosis is excellent.Get Estimate
It is the most common congenital heart defect in children. The defect results in mixing of pure and impure blood. It comprises a combination of four defects- right ventricular hypertrophy (increase in the size of right lower chamber), ventricular septal defect (whole in the wall between the two ventricles), abnormal position of aorta (aorta is on right side of heart instead of the left) and pulmonary stenosis (narrowing of pulmonary valve opening which prevents outflow of blood from right ventricle).Get Estimate
Two Major Surgeries help to Correct These Abnormalities.
- Blalock- Taussig’s Operation is a palliative procedure performed in smaller infants to increase blood flow to lungs and to allow the child to grow big enough to withstand the corrective surgery. A connection is made between right subclavian artery and pulmonary artery to pass more oxygenated blood to the latter. This relieves the cyanosis to a great extent.
- The Total Corrective Surgery is performed in children within 2 years of age. VSD is closed with a patch and the narrowed pulmonary valve is opened. The outcome of surgery is favourable and most children lead a healthy life after the surgery with minimum restrictions.Get Estimate
Francis Bendicta, Nairobi from Kenya shares his experience about her One year Old daughter’s miraculous recovery from complex valve defect
We had twins born about 2 months ago, a boy and a girl. Just a few hours after birth, the doctor broke the news to us that she suspected one of the children to be suffering from a heart condition. This was earth shattering for us and we decided to put all our resources to give our new born a chance to live. We didn’t have very sophisticated technology that was needed for this surgery back home in Nairobi and we didn’t know how to go ahead. That’s when our close relative recommended looking for options in India as there such surgeries are performed using world class technology at lesser costs.
We came across Safemedtrip website while surfing the net and that was the turning point for us. Right from visa, legal papers, air tickets, hotel accommodation in India to the right hospital and the best doctors in field of paediatrics, Safemedtrip arranged all of this. The whole admission procedure, pre surgery tests and hospital care was done so professionally that we did not face any hurdle along the way. We knew our child was in the best hands. The heart surgery was absolutely successful and my child is now back to normal and once again I say thank you and God bless you.Refer a Patient
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