Nonsurgical Treatments for Liver Cancer at World Class Hospitals in India

Majority of primary liver cancers (over 90 to 95%) arises from liver cells and is called hepatocellular cancer or carcinoma. Liver cancer or Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is one of the commonest cancers in the world. It may be caused by diseases that lead to cirrhosis of the liver such as Hepatitis B, Hepatitis C infection, and alcohol abuse.

How is Liver Cancer Diagnosed?

Liver cancer is usually diagnosed with a number of different tests, which may include:

  • Blood tests: To check your general health and check for a chemical usually found inincreased levels in people with primary liver cancer.
  • Ultrasound: A picture of the liver is taken using sound waves.
  • Computed Tomography (CT) Scan: A specialised x-ray taken from many different angles to build a three-dimensional (3-D) picture of the body.
  • Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI): Similar to a CT scan, but uses a powerful magnet and magnetic field instead of x-rays to build an image of the body.
  • Liver Biopsy: A small piece of liver tissue is removed with a needle and examined for cancer cells.
  • Laparoscopy: A small cut in the lower abdomen is made and this allows a thin mini-telescope (laparoscope) to be inserted to look at the liver and take a sample of liver tissue.
  • Needle Biopsy: Needle biopsy, also called image-guided biopsy, is usually performed using a (MR) to guide the procedure. In many cases, needle biopsies are performed with the aid of equipment that creates a computer-generated image and allows radiologists to see an area inside the body from various angles. This “stereotactic” equipment helps them pinpoint the exact location of the abnormal tissue.
  • Large Core Needle Biopsy: In this technique, a special needle is used that enables the radiologist to obtain a larger biopsy sample. This technique is often used to obtain tissue samples from lumps or other abnormalities in the breast that are detected by physical examination or on mammograms or other imaging scans. moving X-ray technique (fluoroscopy) computed tomography (CT), ultrasound or magnetic resonance.

Liver Cancer Treatment in India

  • Surgery: Procedure to remove a portion of the liver. Your doctor may recommend partial hepatectomy to remove the liver cancer and a small portion of healthy tissue that surrounds it if your tumor is small and your liver function is good.
  • Transplant Surgery: During liver transplant surgery, your diseased liver is removed and replaced with a healthy liver from a donor. Liver transplant surgery may be an option for people with early-stage liver cancer who also have cirrhosis.
  • Freezing Cancer Cells: Cryoablation uses extreme cold to destroy cancer cells. During the procedure, your doctor places the instrument (cryoprobe) containing liquid nitrogen directly onto liver tumor.
  • Heating Cancer Cells: In a procedure called radiofrequency ablation, electric current is used to heat and destroy cancer cells. It is also called hyperthermia cancer treatment.
  • Injecting Alcohol: During alcohol injection, pure alcohol is injected directly into tumors, either through the skin or during an operation. Alcohol dries out the cells of the tumor and eventually the cells die.
  • Chemoembolization: A type of chemotherapy treatment that supplies strong anti-cancer drugs directly to the liver. It is palliative and not curative treatment.
  • Radiation Therapy: This treatment uses high-powered energy beams to destroy cancer cells and shrink tumors.
  • Targeted Drug Therapy: Drugs designed to interfere with a tumor’s ability to generate new blood vessels.
Nonsurgical Treatments for Liver Cancer at World Class Hospitals in India
1) Chemoembolization: Chemoembolization is a minimally invasive treatment for liver cancer that can be used when there is too much tumor to treat with radiofrequency ablation (RFA), when the tumor is in a location that cannot be treated with RFA, or in combination with RFA or other treatments. In this the anticancer drug is given along with another substance that blocks the hepatic artery. (artery supplying the liver). Thus the anticancer drug is gets concentrated in the cancerous portion of the liver.2) Radiofrequency Ablation: For inoperable liver tumors, radiofrequency ablation (RFA) offers a nonsurgical, localized treatment that kills the tumor cells with heat, while sparing the healthy liver tissue. Thus, this treatment is much easier on the patient than systemic therapy.

3)Cryosurgery: It is a treatment that uses an instrument to freeze and destroy abnormal tissue, such as cancerous cells. This type of treatment is also called Cryotherapy. The doctor may use ultrasound to guide the instrument.

4) Drugs called radio-sensitizers may be given with the radiation therapy to make the cancer cells more sensitive to radiation therapy.

5)Percutaneous Ethanol Injection: Percutaneous ethanol injection is a cancer treatment in which a small needle is used to inject ethanol (alcohol) directly into a tumor to kill cancer cells. The procedure may be done once or twice a week. Usually local anesthesia is used, but if the patient has many tumors in the liver, general anesthesia may be needed.

6)Hyperthermia Therapy: Hyperthermia therapy is a type of treatment in which body tissue is exposed to high temperatures to damage and kill cancer cells or to make cancer cells more sensitive to the effects of radiation and certain anticancer drugs. Because some cancer cells are more sensitive to heat than normal cells are, the cancer cells die and the tumor shrinks.

7)Biologic Therapy: Biologic therapy is a treatment that uses the patient’s immune system to fight cancer. Substances made by the body or made in a laboratory are used to boost, direct, or restore the body’s natural defenses against cancer. This type of cancer treatment is also called biotherapy or immunotherapy.

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