Cancer begins in cells, the building blocks that make up tissues. Tissues make up the organs of the body.Normally, cells grow and divide to form new cells as the body needs them. When cells grow old, they die, and new cells take their place.
Sometimes this orderly process goes wrong. New cells form when the body does not need them, and old cells do not die when they should. These extra cells can form a mass of tissue called a growth or tumor.
Oral cancer is part of a group of cancers called head and neck cancers. Oral cancer can develop in any part of the oral cavity or oropharynx. Most oral cancers begin in the tongue and in the floor of the mouth. Almost all oral cancers begin in the flat cells (squamous cells) that cover the surfaces of the mouth, tongue, and lips. These cancers are called squamous cell carcinomas.
Anyone can get oral cancer, but the risk is higher if you are male, over age 40, use tobacco or alcohol or have a history of head or neck cancer. Frequent sun exposure is also a risk for lip cancer. Symptoms of oral cancer include:
- White or red patches in your mouth.
- A Mouth sore that won’t heal.
- Bleeding in your mouth.
- Loose Teeth.
- Problems or pain with swallowing.
- A Lump in your neck.
- An Earache.
Surgery to remove the tumor. Your surgeon may cut away the tumor and a margin of healthy tissue that surrounds it. Smaller cancers may be removed through minor surgery. Larger tumors may require more-extensive procedures.
Surgery to remove cancer that has spread to the neck. If cancer cells have spread to the lymph nodes in your neck, your surgeon may recommend a procedure to remove cancerous lymph nodes and related tissue in the neck (neck dissection).
Surgery to reconstruct the mouth. After anoperation to remove your cancer, your surgeon may recommend reconstructive surgery to restore the appearance of your face or to help you regain the ability to talk and eat.
Radiotherapy : Radiotherapy uses doses of radiation to kill cancerous cells. It may be possible to remove the cancer using radiotherapy alone, but it is usually used after surgery to prevent the cancer from reocurring.
Internal radiotherapy : Internal radiotherapy is a type of radiotherapy often used to treat cancers of the tongue that are in their early stages. It involves sticking radioactive wires or needles directly into the tumour while you are under a general anaesthetic (put to sleep). The wires or needles then release a dose of radiation into the tumour.
Chemotherapy : Chemotherapy is often used in combination with radiotherapy when the cancer is widespread, or if it is thought there is a significant risk of the cancer returning.Chemotherapy involves the use of powerful cancer
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