Kidney stones (renal lithiasis) are small, hard deposits that form inside your kidneys. The stones are made of mineral and acid salts. Kidney stones have many causes and can affect any part of your urinary tract — from your kidneys to your bladder. Often, stones form when the urine becomes concentrated, allowing minerals to crystallize and stick together.
When waste materials in the urine do not dissolve completely and the kidney is unable to evacuate them, crystals and kidney stones are likely to form. Some stones may pass out of the kidney or get lodged in the ureter (tube that carries urine from the kidney to the bladder) and cause severe pain that starts from the low back and radiates to the side or groin.
A lodged stone can block the flow of urine and build a backpressure in the affected ureter and kidney. Increased pressure results in stretching and spasm causing severe pain.
Types of Kidney Stones
• Calcium Stones are most common. Calcium can combine with other substances, such as oxalate (the most common substance), phosphate, or carbonate, to form the stone. Oxalate is present in certain foods such as spinach. It’s also found in vitamin C supplements. Diseases of the small intestine increase your risk of these stones.
• Cystine Stones consist of cystine, one of the building blocks that make up muscles, nerves, and other parts of the body, can build up in the urine and form a stone.
• Struvite stones are mostly found in women who have a urinary tract infection. These stones can grow very large and can block the kidney, ureter, or bladder.
• Uric Acid Stones Uric acid stones may form when there is too much acid in the urine. It is the most common cause of radiolucent kidney stones in children. Several products of purine metabolism are relatively insoluble .
Extracorporeal Shock Wave Lithotrispy (ESWL)
Extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy (ESWL) is the most common type of lithotripsy. “Extracorporeal” means outside the body.You will wear a medical gown and lie on an exam table on top of a soft, water-filled cushion. You will be given a mild sedative or pain medicine before the procedure starts. You will also be given antibiotics before the procedure starts to prevent infection.
High-energy shock waves, also called sound waves, will pass through your body until they hit the kidney stones. You may feel a tapping sensation when this starts. The waves break the stones into tiny pieces. Often, you will be given general anesthesia for the procedure. You will be asleep and pain-free.
Percutaneous Nephrostolithotomy (PCNL)
Percutaneous Nephrolithotomy, or PCNL, is a procedure for removing medium-sized or larger kidney stones from the patient’s urinary tract by means of a nephroscope passed into the kidney through a track created in the patient’s back. This procedure uses an ultrasonic or laser probe to break up large kidney stones and suction it out. This procedure is usually done under general anaesthesia or spinal anaesthesia
In percutaneous nephrolithotomy or nephrolithotripsy, the surgeon makes a small incision in your back to remove kidney stones. He or she then puts a hollow tube into your kidney and a probe through the tube.
Ureteroscopic Lithotrispy with Holmium Laser
This procedure is performed under Epidural and Spinal Anaesthesia to treat stones located in the middle and lower ureter. A small, fiberoptic instrument (ureteroscope) is passed into the ureter. Large stones are fragmented using 100-Watts Coherent Holmium Laser. The laser fragments stone into sand like particles, which are then flushed out through the natural urinary passage. The advantage of Holmium Laser is its ability to fragment stones of all compositions and precision. Thus, it is the most effective laser for the treatment of ureteric stones. Patients are generally admitted the same day of the treatment and are discharged next day, which means only 24 hours hospitalization.To know more about Uterine Cancer Treatment in India please visit this link : https://safemedtrip.com/medical-services/cancer-treatment-in-india/uterine-cancer-treatment-in-india.html