Diabetic Foot Treatment – Causes, Treatment & Surgery from Best Hospitals
When diabetes is not well controlled, damage to the organs and impairment of the immune system is likely. Diabetes and feet are correlated with each other as foot problems commonly develop in people with diabetes and can quickly become serious. Hence the diabetic foot care is very important. With damage to the nervous system, a person with diabetes may not be able to feel his or her feet properly. Normal sweat secretion and oil production that lubricates the skin of the foot is impaired.
These factors together can lead to abnormal pressure on the skin, bones, and joints of the foot during walking and can lead to breakdown of the skin of the foot. Wounds/Sores may develop. Damage to blood vessels and impairment of the immune system from diabetes makes it difficult to heal these wounds. Bacterial infections, infection of the skin, connective tissues, muscles, and bones can then occur. These infections can develop into gangrene. Because of the poor blood flow, antibiotics cannot get to the site of the infection easily. Often, the only treatment for this is amputation of the foot or leg.
Footwear: Poorly fitting shoes are a common cause of diabetic foot problems. If the patient has red spots, sore spots, blisters, corns, calluses, or consistent pain associated with wearing shoes, new properly fitting footwear must be obtained as soon as possible. If the patient has common foot abnormalities such as flat feet, bunions, or hammertoes, prescription shoes or shoe inserts may be necessary.
Nerve Damage: People with long standing or poorly controlled diabetes are at risk for having damage to the nerves in their feet.Poor circulation: Especially when poorly controlled, diabetes can lead to accelerated hardening of the arteries or atherosclerosis. When blood flow to injured tissues is poor, healing does not occur properly.
Trauma to the Foot: Any trauma to the foot can increase the risk for a more serious problem to develop.
Infections: Athlete’s foot, a fungal infection of the skin or toenails, can lead to more serious bacterial infections and should be treated promptly. Ingrown toenails should be handled right away by a foot specialist. Toenail fungus should also be treated as this is often the source of a diabetic foot.
Foot surgeons who are acquainted with the surgical anatomy, in close cooperation with a vascular surgeon, must be responsible for deep debridements and other operations on moderately or severely infected feet. These procedures must be conducted in the operating room; there is no precedent for operating on patients with these conditions in an outpatient setting or at the bedside. These infections call for a multidisciplinary approach, including a diabetologist or internist who can cope with the metabolic disturbances, a clinical microbiologist or infectious diseases specialist, a podiatrist, and an orthotist. In cases of mild infections, minor debridement, which can be performed in an outpatient setting, is usually combined with antibiotic therapy. The podiatrist, who is experienced in removing callus, can be trained to perform these superficial debridements.
Diabetic Foot Treatment in India
Antibiotics: If the doctor determines that a wound or ulcer on the patient’s feet or legs is infected, he or she may recommend for antibiotic therapy. Generally, the patient should see some improvement in the wound in two to three days and may see improvement on the first day itself. For limb-threatening or life-threatening infections, the patient will be admitted to the hospital and given IV antibiotics. Less serious infectionsmay be treated with pills as an outpatient.
Referral to Podiatrist or Orthopedic Surgeon: If the patient has bone-related problems, toenail problems, corns and calluses, hammertoes, bunions, flat feet, heel spurs, arthritis, or has difficulty with finding shoes that fit, a physician may refer you to one of these specialists. They create shoe inserts, prescribe shoes, remove calluses and have expertise in surgical solutions for bone problems. They can also be an excellent resource for how to care for the patient’s feet routinely.
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