Various Types of Total & Partial Knee Replacement Surgery
1. Total Knee Replacement
Total Knee Replacement (TKR), also referred to as Total Knee Arthroplasty (TKA), is a surgical procedure where worn, diseased, or damaged surfaces of a knee joint are removed and replaced with artificial surfaces. It is a common surgical procedure most often performed to relieve the pain and disability from degenerative arthritis, meniscus tears, osteoarthritis of knee, cartilage defects, and ligament tears.
The most common cause for knee pain which needs Knee Replacement Surgery is osteoarthritis of knee. In Total Knee Replacement, the orthopedic surgeon removes damaged cartilage and bone from the surface of your knee joint and replaces them with a prosthesis/implant of metal and plastic. Total knee replacement can help put an end to arthritic pain in your knee and enable you to resume a functional and active lifestyle.
2. Partial Knee Replacement
Most people are aware of the total knee replacement surgery. This involves replacing the unhealthy surface of the entire knee joint with metal and plastic implants. It is a very successful operation with good long term results. However a large percentage of patients have arthritis limited to one part of the joint alone. Orthopedic surgeons may recommend partial knee replacement if the arthritis is confined to a single part (compartment) of the knee Replacing the whole joint in these patients is overkill and unnecessary.
Many middle aged men and women develop osteoarthritis of the knee. Osteoarthritis of the knee affects the inner half or medial compartment to start with and then proceeds to affect the outer half or lateral compartment. In this operation only that part of the knee, which is unhealthy, is replaced. The normal surfaces are left alone. This operation has several advantages over total knee replacement surgery like small incision, longer life of implant and post operative hospitalization is reduced and return to normal is much faster than total knee replacement surgery.
3. Simultaneous Bilateral Knee Replacement- Both Knee Replacement Surgery
Orthopedic surgeons may recommend simultaneous procedure when both knees are required to be replaced. A simultaneous procedure means that both knees are replaced at the same surgery, in one day. The benefit of simultaneous knee replacement is that both problems are taken care of at one time. The overall stay and rehabilitation can be done in a shorter time, and there is only one hospitalization. Patients also only require one anaesthesia.
4. Revision Knee Replacement
Total Knee Replacements that need to be revised after 15-20 years (post primary surgery) are also done at the world class orthopedic hospitals in India. The most advanced prosthesis and Computer Assisted Surgery (CAS) is also used for Revision Knee Replacements.Post a Query
5. Knee Arthroscopic Surgery
Knee arthroscopic surgery is a procedure performed through small incisions in the skin to repair injuries to tissues such as ligaments, cartilage, or bone within the knee joint area. The surgery is conducted by an orthopedic surgeon with the aid of an arthroscope, which is a very small instrument guided by a lighted scope attached to a television monitor.
Knee arthroscopy has in many cases replaced the classic arthrotomy that was performed in the past. Today knee arthroscopy is commonly performed for treating meniscus injury, reconstruction of the anterior cruciate ligament and for cartilage microfracturing. Many knee joint problems are amenable to arthroscopic surgery like :-
- Trimming a torn meniscus of the knee
- Repairing a torn meniscus of the knee
- Treatment of cartilage damage in the knee
Arthroscopic surgery is a “less invasive” procedure and being a surgical procedure involves risks, but when performed for the right problem it is often very successful.
ACL Reconstruction :
The Anterior Cruciate Ligament (ACL) keeps the shin bone (tibia) in place. A tear of this ligament can cause your Knee & Hip to give way during physical activity. ACL reconstruction surgery is done to replace the ligament in the center of your Knee & Hip with a new ligament.
Arthroscopic Menisectomy :
Meniscectomy is the surgical removal of all or part of a torn meniscus (rupturing of one or more of the fibrocartilage strips in the Knee & Hip called menisci). A meniscus tear is a common Knee & Hip joint injury and can lead to pain and/or swelling of the Knee & Hip joint.. Menisci can also be torn during innocuous activities such as walking or squattig. Depending on the location of the tear, a repair may be possible. n the outer third of the meniscus, an adequate blood supply exists and a repair will likely heal. Usually younger patients are more resilient and respond well to this treatment, while older, more sedentary patients do not have a favourable outcome after a repair.
Meniscal Repair :
Doctors use arthroscopic surgery to repair the meniscus. The surgeon inserts a thin tube (arthroscope) containing a camera and a light through small incisions near the Knee & Hip and is able to see inside the Knee & Hip without making a large incision. Surgical instruments can be inserted through other small incisions. The surgeon repairs the meniscus using dissolvable sutures (stitches) or anchors.
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