Cancers that are known collectively as head and neck cancers usually begin in the squamous cells that line the moist, mucosal surfaces inside the head and neck. These squamous cell cancers are often referred to as squamous cell carcinomas of the head and neck. Head and neck cancer includes cancers of the mouth, nose, sinuses, salivary glands, throat, and lymph nodes in the neck. Most begin in the moist tissues that line the mouth, nose and throat. Symptoms include:
- A Lump or sore that does not heal.
- A Sore throat that does not go away.
- Trouble Swallowing.
- A Change or Hoarseness in the voice.
Major Types of Head & Neck Cancers are:
The Hypopharynx is the bottom part of the pharynx (throat).The pharynx is a hollow tube about five inches long that starts behind the nose and goes down to the neck to become part of the esophagus (the tube that goes to the stomach). Air and food pass through the pharynx on the way to the windpipe (trachea) or the esophagus.
There are three main parts of the larynx: the glottis (the middle part of the larynx where the vocal cords are located); the supraglottis (the tissue above the glottis); and the subglottis (the tissue below the glottis). The subglottis connects to the trachea, which takes air to the lungs.There are three main parts of the larynx: the glottis (the middle part of the larynx where the vocal cords are located); the supraglottis (the tissue above the glottis); and the subglottis (the tissue below the glottis). The subglottis connects to the trachea, which takes air to the lungs
Salivary Gland Cancer
The symptoms that may indicate such cancers are painless and/or increasing swelling under the chin or around the jawbone, numbness in the face, inability to move muscles in the face and pain in the face, chin, or neck.
Cancer of the thyroid is a disease in which cancerous (malignant) cells develop in the tissues of the thyroid gland. The thyroid gland makes important hormones that help the body function normally.
Treatment of Head and Neck Cancer at World Class Hospitals in India
Surgery: During surgery, the goal is to remove the cancerous tumor and some of the healthy tissue around it . A surgical oncologist is a doctor who specializes in treating cancer using surgery. Types of surgery for head and neck cancer include:
Excision. This is an operation to remove the cancerous tumor and the margin around it.
Laser Technology. This may be used to treat early-stage tumors, especially in larynx cancer.
Lymph Node Dissection. If the doctor suspects that the cancer has spread, the doctor may remove lymph nodes in the neck, possibly causing stiffness in the shoulders afterward. This may be done at the same time as an excision.
Reconstructive (Plastic) Surgery. This type of operation is aimed at restoring a person’s appearance and function of the affected area. If the surgery requires major tissue removal (for example, removing the jaw, skin, pharynx, or tongue), reconstructive or plastic surgery may be done to replace the missing tissue.
Minimally Invasive Surgery for Head and Neck Cancer at World Class Hospitals in India
Minimally invasive surgical techniques are used when possible to remove tumors that are located near structures involved in sensory and physical functioning. In many cases, patients can recover more quickly when treated with minimally invasive surgery compared with traditional, open surgery.
Endoscopic Laser Surgery: This technique may be used to remove tumors in the larynx (voice box) or pharynx (throat) while preserving the structures involved in speech and swallowing. The surgeon inserts a thin, lighted tube called an endoscope through the patient’s mouth and into the throat. Surgeons remove the tumor using a special laser that is attached to the endoscope. Endoscopic laser surgery is often performed on an outpatient basis with a safe, fast-acting anesthetic that wears off quickly after the procedure.
Minimally Invasive Video-Assisted Thyroidectomy (MIVAT): A tiny video camera that is attached to an endoscope is used to remove thyroid tumors through a small incision.
Robotic Surgery: Tumors of the tongue and tonsils can be removed with the aid of small robotic arms that are placed in the mouth, avoiding the need to make a large incision or to split the jawbone.
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